Dávid Ferenc és a kortárs prédikációirodalom

A reformáció első generációi

A kora újkori unitárius prédikációirodalom története Erdélyben és Magyarországon Kutatócsoport és a Kolozsvári Protestáns Teológiai Intézet 2021. április 30-án konferenciát szervezett Budapesten, az Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetemen, melynek témája a korai reformátorokhoz kapcsolódó prédikációk és a prédikációtörténet vizsgálata volt. Az alapvetően Erdélyre és Magyarországra, valamint a magyar nyelvű prédikációs anyagra koncentráló konferencia a 16. századi prédikációkkal kapcsolatban vizsgálta unitárius, katolikus, lutheránus és református prédikátorok, kötetek, korpuszok, kéziratos és nyomtatott források történetét. E kötet a konferencián elhangzott előadások bővített, írott változatát tartalmazza. Az első blokkban az unitárius, a másodikban a katolikus, míg a harmadikban a protestáns anyagra koncentráló kutatások, összesen tizenkét tanulmány részletes képet ad a 16. századi szöveghagyomány értelmezési lehetőségeiről és továbbéléséről, valamint a folyó kutatások új eredményeiről, új irányairól.

(A kiadvány elérhető a kutatócsoport honlapján is ezen a linken: https://unitpred.elte.hu/kiadvanyok)

Rácsnézet | Táblanézet
Balázs Mihály(9--26)

In this study, I examine the works of ars praedicandi as used by the Unitarians. The paper focuses on the Unitarian use of the works of Bartholomaeus Keckermann, who attributed an important role to the exordium. The paper further registers an 18th-century Unitarian reader of Keckermann’s rhetoric, found in a composite volume in the Library of the Cluj-Napoca Branch of the Romanian Academy. This work’s earlier impact can also be studied in a Unitarian manuscript revision created as early as in 1653. There is another Unitarian work (Ms. U. 262) on sermon making from this period, a part of which contains examples of exordiums, that is, introductory parts of sermons. Based on all this, I argue that the exordiums were handled much more leniently by the Unitarians than by other Reformed denominations, and that from the late Renaissance to the 18th century, Unitarians were practitioners of a rather traditional type of preaching.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), unitárius egyház, antitrinitarizmus
Varga Benjámin(19--174)

In his 1583 ritual entitled Agendarius, which was innovative in many respects in comparison to its Hungarian predecessors, Bishop Miklós Telegdi of Pécs, the administrator of the diocese of Esztergom, added sample-like sermons to the rituals of the administration of the sacraments accompanying the great turning points of life (viz. baptism, confirmation, wedding etc.). He was presumably guided chiefly by pastoral considerations. For the second edition of 1596 (published after Telegdi’s death), the editors added a second funeral sermon, clearly intended for a more educated, urban audience – judging from the scholarly Latin quotations and the general tone. A comparison of the structure and content of the two speeches provides useful conclusions as to what the ecclesiastical authorities of the time considered advisable to preach at the time of death to mourners lacking basic schooling and what to the more learned audience.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), unitárius prédikáció, temetési prédikáció
Lovas Borbála(27--61)

Francis David, or Ferenc Dávid, the first bishop of the Transylvanian Unitarian church, produced the only printed sermon collection published by the Unitarians in the 16th and 17th centuries. This folio-sized volume has an interesting publication history as it accompanied the most important Unitarian publications of the early period, such as Rövid magyarázat (Short explanation) and Rövid útmutatás (Short guide), De falsa et vera, Brevis enarratio, Dehortatio et descriptio Dei tripersonati, etc. This volume also ends an era of free printing, followed by a more than a century-long period of handwritten sermon collections. The paper focuses on the details of the writing and editing period, the features of the publication, and the afterlife of the work and the sermons within by examining the surviving cca. dozen copies. The main aim of the paper is to reintroduce David’s sermon collection, to begin a new discussion about the Unitarian sermon tradition, textual and printing history connected to Unitarian authors, and to present new results of the research.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébunitárius egyház, igehirdetés (prédikáció)
Kovács Sándor(63--75)

Francis David’s selected sermons were published by the printing press of Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár) in 1569. These sermons are structured in an almost identical way: biblical text, brief summary, lessons and the proper sermon. most of the sermons, which adhered very strictly to the explanation of the text, were probably preached in the court of John Sigismund, prince of Transylvania, while others at services and workshops for priests who came to the religious disputes. As modern readers, we might posit the likelihood that bishop Francis David held training courses for pastors to prepare them for propagating the antitrinitarian doctrines whenever they had the opportunity. This paper examines to what extent Francis David’s sermons can be considered miniature encyclopaedias or repositories of useful knowledge as were the sermons of the 16th century. The study concludes that although these sermons were delivered in church, they were not addressed to the ordinary people of the congregation but were rather intended as a guide for Unitarian clergy.

SzaktanulmányEgyháztörténet, Egyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), unitárius egyház, erdélyi unitárius egyház
Varga Réka(77--86)

The Disputation of Pécs (Pécsi Disputa) by György Válaszúti is a unique segment of 16th-century antitrinitarian literature. Since pécs was occupied by the Ottoman empire, Christians had to live by strict rules. They had to live outside the city walls, and they could only use one church. The dispute is a chronicle of a religious debate between the reformed citizens of tolna and the antitrinitarian citizens of Pécs.

Although the literature has not reached a consensus yet, we can be quite sure that the debate had a religious and an economic background as well. As the mongers of Pécs had to use the road which led through Tolna to get to the fairs and markets, they had smaller debates on the road as well. since the two cities were competing, the people of tolna had to come up with new ideas and the banning of antitrinitarianism seemed like a good cause. They called the mongers of Pécs heretics and denied them all help.

The other reason was purely religious. György Válaszúti and his rather radical antitrinitarianism was not only unacceptable for the citizens of tolna, they also had to face the spreading of Válaszúti’s words in their own city. Válaszúti, originally from Transylvania, had all the resources – books, letters, ideas – coming from the motherland to keep him and his radical ideas up to date. Among the authors he mentions in his work, there is a theologian called Jacobus Palaeologus. The Greek heretic’s main idea was to unite all the Christian, Jewish and Muslim denominations. When he was persecuted by Rome, he found shelter in Transylvania.

When we are talking about the citizens of Pécs and their role in the dispute, we need to mention the Greek heretic as well. Válaszúti claims in the Disputation of Pécs that the citizens played a very important role during the events, not only in the beginning when we can read about the letters between the two cities, but later too, when they discussed religion. Válaszúti mentions several times that he needs to talk to the citizens who “give him the bread” before important decisions as well as to his opponent in the debate, Máté Skaricza. This important role of the citizens in the debate leads us back to Palaeologus, who thought that religion should come from the aristocrats, as in Transylvania, and the others can follow them.

Pécs was in a very different position at the time as occupied by the ottomans, they did not have aristocrats. There were only the leaders and the citizens. I will argue in the paper that Válaszúti took Palaeologus’s ideas and reformulated them to the situation of Pécs. Without the aristocrats, Válaszúti only had the citizens who could lead the people in the matter of religion, eventually playing an important role during the dispute.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), antitrinitarizmus, unitárius egyház, Pécs
Simon József(87--100)

Although György Enyedi’s (1555-1597) posthumous exegetical masterpiece Explicationes (Cluj, 1598) did not contain any explicit statements on political thinking, his Hungarian sermons testify his theoretical interest towards political philosophy. The paper focuses on sermons 67, 68 and 184, wherein Enyedi formulates his version of natural law. Due to his antitrinitarian theological presuppositions and his philosophical anthropology deeply inherent in the former, Enyedi’s position does not match fully the standard versions of natural law of his time. on the one hand, Enyedi’s approach proves to be much more intellectual in character than the voluntaristic correction of Thomist natural law in Scholastic-Suáresian theory. on the other hand, the antitrinitarian dismissal of original sin as a chief anthropological motif results in differences from the protestant natural law tradition, as Melanchthon developed it in the 1530s. Against this background, the paper explores Enyedi’s basic theoretical convictions relating to political authority and to natural obligation in the context of the humanistic ideal proper to Enyedi’s efforts in the field of Bible interpretation.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), természeti vallásosság, természetjog, unitárius egyház
Szigeti Molnár Dávid(101--122)

My study approaches Unitarian sermon literature from the perspective of church discipline. There are several reasons for this: 1) Historical records of reception are scarce because in the early modern age, only a handful of Unitarian sermons could be published. 2) it was uncommon among Unitarian preachers to use theoretical works (ars concionandi/praedicandi) until the end of the 17th century, they learned instead by observing the written and oral practices of their colleagues. 3) Because of the medium of the manuscript, most early modern Unitarian sermons did not survive beyond the 17th–18th century. Therefore, in our exploration of the rules and ideals of sermon literature as well as the attitudes of followers, preachers, and schoolmasters to the genre, we are forced to rely on inferences based on the norms, especially the offences recorded in (ecclesiastical) court protocols.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébunitárius egyház, igehirdetés (prédikáció), unitárius prédikáció
Lenyó Orsolya(123--158)

Miklós Telegdi, a Roman Catholic bishop of the reformation period, was an important figure of his generation. The confessional guide of his Agendarius, first published in 1583 in nagyszombat (Trnava, now in Slovakia), is particular as to its structure and content. in Hungary, this is the first penitential guide that was written in a unique style, including vernacular parts and containing exhortations in a large number. The confessional includes a text discussing the strict obligation on the seal of confession as well as a confession mirror which, according to its genre, is a tool of individual self-examination. In my paper, I attempt to answer the question whether Telegdi’s confessional guide is only unique from a national point of view or also in a wider, international context.

In my research, I analysed the printed yet so far unstudied European (French, German, italian, polish) rituals from the 15th–16th centuries that are contemporary with the Agendarius of Nagyszombat, all collected from a database called Usuarium. This database was created and developed by the liturgical research Group of Eötvös Loránd University. I searched for sources that can be seen as parallels to Telegdi’s penitential in the following aspects: the presence of vernacular texts; the appearance of exhortations inside a confession as a subgenre of the sermon (in relation to the preaching activity of Telegdi, focusing on its stylistic and thematic characteristics); additions on the seal of confession and the presence of a confession mirror, including the form and the contents of the latter one.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébunitárius egyház, római katolikus egyház, reformáció, magyar reformáció, Pécs, gyónás
Maczák Ibolya(175--184)

Although István Beythe (1532-1612) is usually remembered for his botanical works, his main achievement is his four-part sermon collection (Németújvár, 1584). The first volume contains the Sunday gospels, the second the apostolic epistles he based his lessons on, the third includes excerpts from the Gospel used on feast days of the saints, and the fourth the explanation of the epistles dedicated to the main holidays. My study is about the genre and structural characteristics of these writings, with special emphasis on the denominational lessons of the book on the feasts of the saints.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció)
Sebestyén Ádám(185--203)

My study focuses on the various apocalyptic calculations in the fifth postil written by Péter Bornemisza. According to the theologians of the magisterial Reformation, the exact time of the end cannot be calculated because only God knows this, as the Gospels clearly state it. Although Bornemisza accepts this doctrine too, he shares some assumptions about the approximate time of the second coming in a sermon of his postil. As my study demonstrates, Bornemisza follows the treatise of the German theologian Andreas Osiander (Coniecturae de ultimis temporibus ac de fine mundi, 1544). In this work, Osiander enumerates four calculations which can predict the time of the Apocalypse. The common feature of these calculations is their biblical origin, except for the first one, which is the apocryphal prophecy of Elijah about the 6000 years of the world. The other assumptions are based on the allegorical passages of the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse. The biblical parallelism plays a significant role as well, manifesting in the fateful turning points of history or in the fact that christ’s life relates to the church history on a macrocosmic level. According to this latter, Christ’s years equal to the years that will pass until the last judgement. Osiander and Bornemisza use the jubilee and the angelic years to apply the analogies to longer periods. nevertheless, both authors state that only theologians can interpret these calculations. Beside these ideological similarities, I also compare the textual parallelism of the Latin treatise and the Hungarian sermon.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), eszkatológia
Kelemen Fruzsina(205--219)

The sermons written for the first Sunday after the epiphany, according to the medieval order of the pericopes, are based on the story of 12-year-old Jesus teaching in the temple (Luke 2:41-52). Therefore, the duties of parents and children are usually presented in these sermons. A following of this pericopal tradition can be found among 16th-century Hungarian publications in the books of the pastors Péter Bornemisza, István Beythe and György Kulcsár, and the priest Miklós Telegdi. Through their sermons, I examine how these authors wrote about the ‘good’ and the ‘bad’ child as well as what methods they offered for improving the behaviour and morals of said ‘bad’ child.

In describing the duties of children and parents, we do not encounter conflicting places among different authors; even if they belong to different denominations they seem to complement each other. in the case of a good child, obedience and acceptance are key values, while a bad child is primarily characterized by disrespect and ingratitude towards the parents. The parental duty of taking care of a child is described in three main guidelines: knowing God and nurturing faith; getting used to good morals; discipline and chastisement.

Apart from these duties, children and childhood are represented in a contradictory way throughout these texts. on the one hand, the child appears to be a blessing from God, but on the other hand, childhood is viewed as a time of weakness, foolishness and worthlessness.

In these sermons, the focus is on the parents and parenting is described as the duty of supervision and control. The fate of children is in the hands of those who raise them. If parents pray to God and give thanks to him, accustom their children to true faith and good morals, and discipline them regularly, then children can embark on the path to a better childhood and justification.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), keresztelés, gyermek
Kavecsánszki Máté(221--239)

The study of the historicity and change processes of dance culture requires a specific theoretical methodology in dance anthropology and dance folklore studies, especially since such research has been relatively rare in the Hungarian anthropological scene and has produced a number of questionable results in the field of dance folklore studies. several aspects of an anthropological approach, as well as adopting a comparative and interpretive approach to critical dance studies can assist in deploying a historical perspective in the examination of dance culture. On the other hand, I will also argue that certain schools of the research methodology of social history may facilitate this as well. Utilizing the findings of new social history can also greatly enrich the current methodology of historical dance research.

Historical dance research can operate in a wide methodological and thematic framework of which I only endeavour to show one possible direction. This possible direction in research investigates the connection between social control and dance culture. in construing the relationship between dance culture and social control, the analysis will focus on two important areas. The first is the analysis of the attempts to regulate the subject and the object of disciplinary actions, i.e., dance, the dancing body, and the instances of habit performance linked to the dancing body. one cannot investigate the disciplining of body movements without endeavouring to comprehend the mental universe that formulates the ideologies in the framework of which the intent to discipline develops and which motivate the actions aimed at achieving this. It is especially important here to place the intent to discipline in a wider social and cultural-historical context, i.e., to examine the mental universe in which the field of conflict between the regulator and the regulated is formed. protestant preachers and theologians would recall the tenets related to bodily sins generated on the basis of biblical traditions. They invented a system of christian ethics in which their anxiousness over the fate of their country was connected to the moral deviations of the population. This is how dance, and its entire culture of customs found their way into the focus of sermons.

SzaktanulmányEgyéb, Egyébigehirdetés (prédikáció), tánc
Lovas Borbála, Szigeti Molnár Dávid(241--250)

MutatóEgyéb, Egyéb